NAD replenishment won't cure Parkinson's Disease, but NAD metabolism does seem to be implicated, because even human studies suggest that NAD levels make a difference.
Here are the studies:
Feb 6, 2023
Neurons - Brain - Parkinson's
Could Vitamins Have a Positive Impact on the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease?
"...Vitamin B3 supplementation has been shown to alleviate various symptoms associated with PD...Mechanistically, vitamin B3 promotes the biosynthesis of the classical enzyme cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and mediates the release of nicotinamide by poly-ADP ribosylation. This generates an anti-inflammatory response, which alleviates DA-ergic neurodegeneration caused by neuroinflammation. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with vitamin B3 may ameliorates oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which would therefore prevent the death of DA-ergic neurons..."
Dec 26, 2022
Neurons - Neurodegeneration - Alzheimer's Disease - Parkinson's Disease
Combined metabolic activators improve metabolic functions in the animal models of neurodegenerative diseases
We showed that combined metabolic activators [including nicotinamide riboside] administration significantly improved behavioural scores in parallel with the neurohistological outcomes in the Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease animal models and is a promising treatment for improving the metabolic parameters and brain functions in neurodegenerative diseases.
Mar 1, 2022
Brain - Parkinson's Disease
The NADPARK study: A randomized phase I trial of nicotinamide riboside supplementation in Parkinson’s disease
We conducted a double-blinded phase I clinical trial to establish whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) replenishment therapy, via oral intake of nicotinamide riboside (NR), is safe, augments cerebral NAD levels, and impacts cerebral metabolism in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thirty newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients received 1,000 mg NR or placebo for 30 days. NR treatment was well tolerated and led to a significant, but variable, increase in cerebral NAD levels—measured by 31phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy—and related metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid. NR recipients showing increased brain NAD levels exhibited altered cerebral metabolism, measured by 18fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, and this was associated with mild clinical improvement. NR augmented the NAD metabolome and induced transcriptional upregulation of processes related to mitochondrial, lysosomal, and proteasomal function in blood cells and/or skeletal muscle. Furthermore, NR decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings nominate NR as a potential neuroprotective therapy for PD, warranting further investigation in larger trials.
Aug 4, 2021
Brain - Parkinson's Disease
Combined Metabolic Activators Improve Cognitive Functions without Altering Motor Scores in Parkinson’s Disease
The neuropathologic hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities. We have reported that the Combined Metabolic Activators (CMA), consisting of L-serine, nicotinamide riboside, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and L-carnitine tartrate can be used in treating metabolic abnormalities. These metabolic activators are the precursors of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and glutathione (GSH) and used in activation of mitochondrial and global metabolism...Here, we designed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase-2 study in PD patients with CMA administration. We found that the cognitive functions in PD patients is significantly improved 21% in the CMA group, whereas it is improved only 11% in the placebo group after 84 days of CMA administration. We also found that the administration of CMA did not affect motor functions in PD patients. We performed a comprehensive multi-omics analysis of plasma proteins and metabolites, and revealed the molecular mechanism associated with the treatment of the patients. In conclusion, our results show that treating PD patients with CMAs leads to enhanced cognitive function, as recently reported in AD patients.
Jun 17, 2021
Neurons - Brain - Parkinson's - Niacin
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Niacin Enhancement for Parkinson’s Disease: An Effectiveness Trial
We previously reported that individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) present with lower vitamin B3 levels compared to controls. It may be related to carbidopa interaction, defective tryptophan metabolism, and stresses of night sleep disorder...These results suggest that niacin enhancement has the potential to maintain or improve quality of life in PD and slow disease progression.
Oct 1, 2019
Brain - Aging - Neurons - Alzheimer's - Parkinson's - Huntington's - ALS
NAD+ in Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders
NAD+ is a pivotal metabolite involved in cellular bioenergetics, genomic stability, mitochondrial homeostasis, adaptive stress responses, and cell survival. Multiple NAD+-dependent enzymes are involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal stress resistance. Here, we review emerging findings that reveal key roles for NAD+ and related metabolites in the adaptation of neurons to a wide range of physiological stressors and in counteracting processes in neurodegenerative diseases, such as those occurring in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Advances in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of NAD+-based neuronal resilience will lead to novel approaches for facilitating healthy brain aging and for the treatment of a range of neurological disorders.