The Central Role of the NAD+ Molecule in the Development of Aging and the Prevention of Chronic Age-Related Diseases: Strategies for NAD+ Modulation
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
February 3, 2023
The molecule NAD+ is a coenzyme for enzymes catalyzing cellular redox reactions in several metabolic pathways, encompassing glycolysis, TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, and is a substrate for NAD+-dependent enzymes. In addition to a hydride and electron transfer in redox reactions, NAD+ is a substrate for sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate–ribose) polymerases and even moderate decreases in its cellular concentrations modify signaling of NAD+-consuming enzymes. Age-related reduction in cellular NAD+ concentrations results in metabolic and aging-associated disorders, while the consequences of increased NAD+ production or decreased degradation seem beneficial. This article reviews the NAD+ molecule in the development of aging and the prevention of chronic age-related diseases and discusses the strategies of NAD+ modulation for healthy aging and longevity.