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Role of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide and Related Precursors as Therapeutic Targets for Age-Related Degenerative Diseases: Rationale, Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Outcomes

International Journal of Molecular Sciences

January 10, 2019

Berg, Braidy N.


...Recent studies have shown that enhancing NAD+ levels can profoundly reduce oxidative cell damage in catabolic tissue, including the brain. Therefore, promotion of intracellular NAD+ anabolism represents a promising therapeutic strategy for age-associated degenerative diseases in general, and is essential to the effective realization of multiple benefits of healthy sirtuin activity...In this review, we describe and discuss recent insights regarding the efficacy and benefits of the NAD+ precursors, nicotinamide (NAM), nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), in attenuating NAD+ decline in degenerative disease states and physiological aging. Results obtained in recent years have shown that NAD+ precursors can play important protective roles in several diseases. However, in some cases, these precursors may vary in their ability to enhance NAD+ synthesis via their location in the NAD+ anabolic pathway. Increased synthesis of NAD+ promotes protective cell responses, further demonstrating that NAD+ is a regulatory molecule associated with several biochemical pathways.

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