NAD+ Precursors Repair Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes and Prevent Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
April 28, 2022
Axon degeneration in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is associated with impaired NAD+ metabolism. We tested whether the administration of NAD+ precursors, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR), prevents DPN in models of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. NMN was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and STZ-induced diabetic mice by intraperitoneal injection at 50 or 100 mg/kg on alternate days for 2 months. mice The were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 2 months with or without added NR at 150 or 300 mg/kg for 2 months. The administration of NMN to STZ-induced diabetic rats or mice or dietary addition of NR to HFD-fed mice improved sensory function, normalized sciatic and tail nerve conduction velocities, and prevented loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in skin samples from the hind-paw. In adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from HFD-fed mice, there was a decrease in NAD+ levels and mitochondrial maximum reserve capacity. These impairments were normalized in isolated DRG neurons from NR-treated mice. The results indicate that the correction of NAD+ depletion in DRG may be sufficient to prevent DPN but does not significantly affect glucose tolerance, insulin levels, or insulin resistance.