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BST1 regulates nicotinamide riboside metabolism via its glycohydrolase and base-exchange activities

Nature Communications

November 19, 2021

Yaku, Keisuke


Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is one of the orally bioavailable NAD+ precursors and has been demonstrated to exhibit beneficial effects against aging and aging-associated diseases. However, the metabolic pathway of NR in vivo is not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that orally administered NR increases NAD+ level via two different pathways. In the early phase, NR was directly absorbed and contributed to NAD+ generation through the NR salvage pathway, while in the late phase, NR was hydrolyzed to nicotinamide (NAM) by bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 (BST1), and was further metabolized by the gut microbiota to nicotinic acid, contributing to generate NAD+ through the Preiss–Handler pathway. Furthermore, we report BST1 has a base-exchange activity against both NR and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR) to generate NAR and NR, respectively, connecting amidated and deamidated pathways. Thus, we conclude that BST1 plays a dual role as glycohydrolase and base-exchange enzyme during oral NR supplementation.

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