Science of NAD
How are your NAD levels today?
The research suggests that maintaining proper NAD levels can not only help prevent age-related or noise-induced hearing loss, but can even help recover from harm after the fact.
Here are the studies:
Aug 26, 2022
Hearing - Aging
Long-term NAD+ supplementation prevents the progression of age-related hearing loss in mice
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common sensory disability associated with human aging. Yet, there are no approved measures for preventing or treating this debilitating condition. With its slow progression, continuous and safe approaches are critical for ARHL treatment. Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), a NAD+ precursor, is well tolerated even for long-term use and is already shown effective in various disease models including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. It has also been beneficial against noise induced hearing loss and in hearing loss associated with premature aging. However, its beneficial impact on ARHL is not known. Using two different wild-type mouse strains, we show that long-term NR administration prevents the progression of ARHL...
Apr 23, 2020
Nicotinamide riboside protects noise-induced hearing loss by recovering the hair cell ribbon synapses
Nicotinamide riboside (NR) has been proved to protect the hearing. To achieve animal models of temporary threshold shift (TTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS) respectively, evaluate the dynamic change of ribbon synapse before and after NR administration. Mice were divided into control group, noise exposure (NE) group and NR group. The noise was exposed to NE and NR group, and NR was injected before noise exposure. Auditory brainstem response (ABR), ribbon synapse count and cochlear morphology were tested, as well as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ATP. Ribbon synapse count decrease with the intensity of noise exposure, and the cochlear morphology remains stable during TTS and was damaged during PTS. NR promotes the oxidation resistance to protect the synapse and the inner ear morphology. Our findings suggest that TTS mice are more vulnerable to noise, and NR can promote the recovery of the synapse count to protect the animals’ hearing.
Jan 7, 2020
Aging - Cockayne Syndrome - Hearing
Short-term NAD+ supplementation prevents hearing loss in mouse models of Cockayne syndrome
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is one of the most common disorders affecting elderly individuals. There is an urgent need for effective preventive measures for ARHL because none are currently available. Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a premature aging disease that presents with progressive hearing loss at a young age, but is otherwise similar to ARHL. There are two human genetic complementation groups of CS, A and B. While the clinical phenotypes in patients are similar, the proteins have very diverse functions, and insight into their convergence is of great interest. Here, we use mouse models for CS (CSA−/− and CSBm/m) that recapitulate the hearing loss in human CS patients. We previously showed that NAD+, a key metabolite with various essential functions, is reduced in CS and associated with multiple CS phenotypes. In this study, we report that NAD+ levels are reduced in the cochlea of CSBm/m mice and that short-term treatment (10 days) with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR), prevents hearing loss, restores outer hair cell loss, and improves cochlear health in CSBm/m mice. Similar, but more modest effects were observed in CSA−/− mice. Remarkably, we observed a reduction in synaptic ribbon counts in the presynaptic zones of inner hair cells in both CSA−/− and CSBm/m mice, pointing to a converging mechanism for cochlear defects in CS. Ribbon synapses facilitate rapid and sustained synaptic transmission over long periods of time. Ribeye, a core protein of synaptic ribbons, possesses an NAD(H) binding pocket which regulates its activity. Intriguingly, NAD+ supplementation rescues reduced synaptic ribbon formation in both CSA−/− and CSBm/m mutant cochleae. These findings provide valuable insight into the mechanism of CS- and ARHL-associated hearing loss, and suggest a possible intervention.
Dec 2, 2014
Activation of SIRT3 by the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside protects from noise-induced hearing loss.
Impaired mitochondrial function may be an early step in Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL)...We find that NR administration provides an efficient route to increase NAD+ levels in the cochlea in mice, and also protects mice from NIHL and noise-induced spiral ganglia neurite retraction. Importantly, we also show that the protective effects of NR can be achieved even when NR is administered after noise exposure, suggesting that NR might be clinically useful to prevent hearing loss after unexpected noise exposure in humans...