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Photo of site author, Shelly Albaum

Shelly Albaum

Editor, Science of NAD

Important Disclosures

1. This is my personal website

All opinions are my own. Nobody writes here but me.

2. Supplements Are Not Medicines

Health Supplements like nicotinamide riboside are not intended to cure or treat any disease, condition, or illness.

3. No Medical Advice

I am a lawyer and a journalist, not a doctor, and I offer no medical advice. But I do follow the science, and I can bring to your attention

some interesting studies. You can read more about me here. And check with your physician -- your physician can look at this research, too.

4. Commercial Affiliations

I am a ChromaDex shareholder, and a marketing affiliate for Amazon and Rakuten. As a result, I will sometimes mention or recommend products that I endorse, like Tru Niagen, which I take every day. I may earn a small commission from qualifying purchases if you were referred directly from this site and completed a purchase. [Thank you!] You can read more about our advertising, privacy, and data collection policies here

How Much NAD Is Enough?

If my NAD levels are down a little, temporarily or permanently, does that actually impact anything? It might...

Photo of five glasses of water filling to different levels

Given the essential nature of NAD+ in hundreds of biochemical reactions, including glycolytic and mitochondrial energy production, it seems intuitive that any change in concentration could have major consequences.

However, this question has proven surprisingly difficult to answer, in part due to the compartmentalization and protein binding properties of NAD+. Because the concentration of the free nucleotide varies throughout the cell, and the activities of many NAD+ consuming enzymes may be modulated by other factors including local NAD+/NADH redox state, feedback inhibition from nicotinamide, binding partners, or post-translational modifications, simply measuring the in vitro Km of specific consumers for NAD+ and comparing to the concentration measured in tissue homogenates is not sufficient to understand whether their activities will be affected by small concentration changes in intact cells or tissues.

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