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Drawing of a Brain with neurons and electric impulses

Brain scientists are especially busy researching NAD precursors, because the brain is mostly made of neurons and early results are promising with respect to neuropathy and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, ALS, and Ataxia.


Here are the studies:

Aug 30, 2023

Brain - Alzheimer's - Gut Microbiome

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

Nicotinamide mononucleotide improves the Alzheimer's disease by regulating intestinal microbiota

Zhao, Xiaodong


The aim is to slow down Alzheimer's disease by using personalized dietary NMN to affect the composition of the AD intestinal flora

Aug 28, 2023

Brain - Neurons - Neurodegeneration - Ataxia

Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs

Ataxia-telangiectasia clinical trial landscape and the obstacles to overcome

Kuhn, Katrina


Pharmacologic treatments that target oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial exhaustion may provide neurologic benefit in ataxia-telangiectasia.

Aug 6, 2023

Brain - Neurons - Neurodegeneration - Parkinsons

International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Exploring Molecular Targets for Mitochondrial Therapies in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Plascencia-Villa, German


Nicotinamide a different form of vitamin B3, which in the brain promotes the formation of NAD+, which usually declines with aging and neurodegeneration. A phase I clinical trial studied the effects of nicotinamide riboside (NR) oral intake (1000 mg for 30 days) in individuals with PD ( NCT03816020). Overall, NR treatment was well tolerated, promoting increased NAD levels in the brain (MRI scan and CSF) and increased brain glucose metabolism . The clinical benefits were associated with increased NAD levels and increased mitochondrial activity. This study advanced to phase II where the PD patients will take NR for up to 1 year; the results of this study are expected in 2024.

Aug 1, 2023

Brain - Neurons - Neurodegeneration - Parkinsons

Parkinsonism & Related Disorders

Nicotinamide riboside alleviates Parkinson's disease symptoms but downregulates dopamine metabolism

Turconi, Giorgio


We found that NR eased symptoms of disease by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) via the transcription factor atfs-1. Similarly, in a proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin, -induced mouse model of PD, NR rescued mitochondrial dysfunction and behavioural deficits caused by lactacystin lesion. However, long-term NR supplementation, in conjunction with proteasome inhibition, resulted in decreased DA levels in both the lesioned and unlesioned sides of the substantia nigra with concomitant downregulation of key genes in DA metabolism. Our results suggest specific endpoints that should be monitored in ongoing NR clinical trials.

Feb 22, 2023

Brain - Ischemia

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism

NAD+ precursor nutritional supplements sensitize the brain to future ischemic events

Qu, Wensheng


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a redox cofactor critical for oxidative phosphorylation. Nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR) are NAD+ precursors widely used as nutritional supplements to augment oxidative phosphorylation. Indeed, NAD+ precursors have been reported to improve outcomes in ischemic stroke when administered as a rescue therapy after stroke onset. However, we have also reported that enhanced reliance on oxidative phosphorylation before ischemia onset might worsen outcomes. To address the paradox, we examined how NAD+ precursors modulate the outcome of middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice, when administered either 20 minutes after reperfusion or daily for three days before ischemia onset. A single post-ischemic dose of NAM or NR indeed improved tissue and neurologic outcomes examined at 72 hours. In contrast, pre-ischemic treatment for three days enlarged the infarcts and worsened neurological deficits. As a possible explanation for the diametric outcomes, a single dose of NAM or NR augmented tissue AMPK, PGC1α, SIRT1, and ATP in both naïve and ischemic brains, while the multiple-dose paradigm failed to do so. Our data suggest that NAD+ precursor supplements may sensitize the brain to subsequent ischemic events, despite their neuroprotective effect when administered after ischemia onset.

Feb 6, 2023

Neurons - Brain - Parkinson's

Brain Sciences

Could Vitamins Have a Positive Impact on the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease?



"...Vitamin B3 supplementation has been shown to alleviate various symptoms associated with PD...Mechanistically, vitamin B3 promotes the biosynthesis of the classical enzyme cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and mediates the release of nicotinamide by poly-ADP ribosylation. This generates an anti-inflammatory response, which alleviates DA-ergic neurodegeneration caused by neuroinflammation. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with vitamin B3 may ameliorates oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which would therefore prevent the death of DA-ergic neurons..."

Jan 26, 2023

Brain - Alzheimer's Disease

Translational Neurodegeneration

Combined Metabolic Activators Improves Cognitive Functions in Alzheimer’s Disease

Yulug, Burak


We designed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled human phase 2 clinical trial and showed that the administration of CMAs improves cognitive functions in AD patients...We showed a significant decrease of AD Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) score on day 84 vs day 0 (P = 0.00001, 29% improvement) in the CMA group. Moreover, there was a significant decline (P = 0.0073) in ADAS-Cog scores (improvement of cognitive functions) in the CMA compared to the placebo group in patients with higher ADAS-Cog scores. Improved cognitive functions in AD patients were supported by the relevant alterations in the hippocampal volumes and cortical thickness based on imaging analysis. Moreover, the plasma levels of proteins and metabolites associated with NAD + and glutathione metabolism were significantly improved after CMA treatment. Our results indicate that treatment of AD patients with CMA can lead to enhanced cognitive functions and improved clinical parameters associated with phenomics, metabolomics, proteomics and imaging analysis.

Dec 14, 2022

Brain - Neurons - Neurodegeneration - Inflammation - Alzheimer's

Aging Cell

Oral nicotinamide riboside raises NAD+ and lowers biomarkers of neurodegenerative pathology in plasma extracellular vesicles enriched for neuronal origin

Vreones, Michael


We report the first study examining [extracellular vesicles enriched for neuronal origin or "NEV"] NEV biomarkers in response to oral NR supplementation. Our primary analysis of NAD+ and NADH in NEVs suggests an increase in neuronal NAD+ concentration in response to oral NR supplementation....We demonstrate that oral NR supplementation [in humans] increases NAD+ levels in NEVs ...These findings support the ability of orally administered NR to augment neuronal NAD+ levels and modify biomarkers related to neurodegenerative pathology in humans.

Nov 17, 2022

Brain - Alzheimer's - Neuroinflammation - Metabolism - Diabetes

Scientific Reports

Sirt3 deficiency induced down regulation of insulin degrading enzyme in comorbid Alzheimer’s disease with metabolic syndrome

Tyagi, Alpna


Mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, metabolic dysregulation and neuroinflammation that contribute to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease...The findings of this study suggest that SIRT3 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. Sirtuins, including SIRT3, require NAD+ as a cosubstrate. Administration of NR, a precursor of NAD+, leads to increase in the cellular level of NAD+. In this study, we demonstrate that NR increases the levels of IDE as well as neprilysin and decreases the levels of BACE1 in vivo. Interestingly, NR also increases the levels of SIRT3, probably by autoregulation. NR has been reported to reverse insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a mouse model for type 2 diabetes. NR has been shown to be effective in reducing neuroinflammation and improve cognition in Alzheimer’s mouse models. Therefore, NR-based treatment can be considered for the treatment of AD with comorbidities.

Oct 20, 2022

Brain - Neurodegeneration - Mitochondria - Parkinsons - Alzheimers - ALS

International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neurodegenerative Disorders: Role of Nutritional Supplementation

Mantle, David


We have selected a number of neurodegenerative disorders that are known to involve mitochondrial dysfunction in their pathogenesis. We have further selected a number of nutrients that have a key role in mitochondrial function. We then correlated data on the deficiency (Table 1) and supplementation of these nutrients (Table 2) in the said neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we have therefore provided a rationale for a combination of CoQ10, B-vitamins/NADH, l-carnitine, vitamin D, and alpha-lipoic acid to support the future treatment of these neurodegenerative disorders.

Aug 7, 2022

Brain - Aging - Cognitive Decline - Alzheimers - Stroke


Supplementation with NAD+ and Its Precursors to Prevent Cognitive Decline across Disease Contexts

Campbell, Jared


A large body of preclinical research supports the potential effectiveness of NAD+ precursor supplementation for preserving cognitive health across a variety of disease contexts, with the strongest evidence presented for Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.

Jul 22, 2022

Brain - Cancer - NRH

Cancers (Basel)

Overcoming Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma via Enhanced NAD+ Bioavailability and Inhibition of Poly-ADP-Ribose Glycohydrolase

Li, Jianfeng


Using the NAD precursor NRH to raise NAD levels in an incurable type of brain cancer (Glioblastoma multiforme or GBM) significantly increased the effectiveness of a type of chemotherapy (Temozolomide or TMZ) that is commonly used to treat GBM.

Jul 18, 2022

Brain - Ataxia


Nicotinamide Riboside for Ataxia Telangiectasia: Report of an Early Treated Individual

Steinbruecker, Katja


We here present the effect of nicotinamide riboside in another individual with ataxia…Given the absence of adverse effects, we strongly encourage to consider nicotinamide riboside in all individuals with ataxia telangiectasia.

Jul 7, 2022

Brain - Oxytocin - Autism

Frontiers in Neuroscience

Oxytocin Dynamics in the Body and Brain Regulated by the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products, CD38, CD157, and Nicotinamide Riboside

Higashida, Harohiro


...It has recently been found that gavage application of a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide riboside, for 12 days can increase brain Oxytocin (OT) in mice. Here, we review the evaluation of the new concept that RAGE is involved in the regulation of OT dynamics at the interface between the brain, blood, and intestine in the living body...

Mar 1, 2022

Brain - Parkinson's Disease

Cell Metabolism

The NADPARK study: A randomized phase I trial of nicotinamide riboside supplementation in Parkinson’s disease

Brage, Brakedal


We conducted a double-blinded phase I clinical trial to establish whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) replenishment therapy, via oral intake of nicotinamide riboside (NR), is safe, augments cerebral NAD levels, and impacts cerebral metabolism in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thirty newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients received 1,000 mg NR or placebo for 30 days. NR treatment was well tolerated and led to a significant, but variable, increase in cerebral NAD levels—measured by 31phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy—and related metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid. NR recipients showing increased brain NAD levels exhibited altered cerebral metabolism, measured by 18fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, and this was associated with mild clinical improvement. NR augmented the NAD metabolome and induced transcriptional upregulation of processes related to mitochondrial, lysosomal, and proteasomal function in blood cells and/or skeletal muscle. Furthermore, NR decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings nominate NR as a potential neuroprotective therapy for PD, warranting further investigation in larger trials.

Jan 19, 2022

Brain - Neurons - Alzheimers

Disease Markers

Kynurenine Pathway Metabolites as Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease

Liang, Yuqing


The kynurenine pathway (KP) and several of its metabolites, especially quinolinic acid (QA), are considered to be involved in the neuropathogenesis of AD. The important metabolites and key enzymes show significant importance in neuroinflammation and AD. Meanwhile, the discovery of changed levels of KP metabolites in patients with AD suggests that KP metabolites may have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AD.Brain - Neurons - Alzheimer's Liang, Yuquing Kynurenine Pathway Metabolites as Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease 1/19/22 Lit Review Disease Markers "Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that deteriorates cognitive function. Patients with AD generally exhibit neuroinflammation, elevated beta-amyloid (Aβ), tau phosphorylation (p-tau), and other pathological changes in the brain. The kynurenine pathway (KP) and several of its metabolites, especially quinolinic acid (QA), are considered to be involved in the neuropathogenesis of AD. The important metabolites and key enzymes show significant importance in neuroinflammation and AD. Meanwhile, the discovery of changed levels of KP metabolites in patients with AD suggests that KP metabolites may have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AD. Further, some KP metabolites exhibit other effects on the brain, such as oxidative stress regulation and neurotoxicity. Both analogs of the neuroprotective and antineuroinflammation metabolites and small molecule enzyme inhibitors preventing the formation of neurotoxic and neuroinflammation compounds may have potential therapeutic significance. This review focused on the KP metabolites through the relationship of neuroinflammation in AD, significant KP metabolites, and associated molecular mechanisms as well as the utility of these metabolites as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AD. The objective is to provide references to find biomarkers and therapeutic targets for patients with AD.
" The kynurenine pathway (KP) and several of its metabolites, especially quinolinic acid (QA), are considered to be involved in the neuropathogenesis of AD. The important metabolites and key enzymes show significant importance in neuroinflammation and AD. Meanwhile, the discovery of changed levels of KP metabolites in patients with AD suggests that KP metabolites may have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AD.

Dec 1, 2021

Brain - Ataxia

Movement Disorders

Nicotinamide Riboside Improves Ataxia Scores and Immunoglobulin Levels in Ataxia Telangiectasia

Veenhuis, Stefanie


24 patients with Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) were treated with NR during four consecutive months. The effects of NR on ataxia, dysarthria, quality of life, and laboratory parameters were analyzed. During treatment, ataxia scores improved; mean total Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale scores decreased to 2.4 and 10.1 points, respectively. After NR withdrawal, ataxia scores worsened.

Nov 10, 2021

Brain - Alzheimer's Disease

Cell & Bioscience

Down-regulation of EPB41L4A-AS1 mediated the brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases via damaging synthesis of NAD + and ATP

Yang, Tingpeng


...Downregulation of EPB41L4A-AS1 not only disturbs NAD+ biosynthesis but also affects ATP synthesis. As a result, the high demand for NAD+ and ATP in the brain cannot be met, promoting the development of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. However, overexpression of EPB41L4A-AS1 and nicotinamide riboside, a substrate of NAD+ synthesis, can reduce EPB41L4A-AS1 downregulation-mediated decrease of NAD+ and ATP synthesis. Our results provide new perspectives on the mechanisms underlying brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

Sep 21, 2021

Aging - Brain - Ataxia - Stem Cells - Bone Marrow - Inflammation

Aging Cell

NAD+ augmentation with nicotinamide riboside improves lymphoid potential of Atm−/− and old mice HSCs

Zong, Le


Our data suggest that NR administration in compromised hematopoietic systems (NAD+ depleted system) drives cell-intrinsic changes of the HSC compartment together with an overall reduction in circulating inflammatory cytokines. However, once the aged system has been exposed to NR, the effects of removing the supplementation may have undesirable consequences. Thus, once a deficient system is exposed to NAD+ supplementation, to maintain the benefits we have demonstrated, the regimen may need to be sustained long-term...Our results showed significant alterations in lineage commitment of HSCs after NR treatment, with enhanced lymphoid potential. This correlated with changes in inflammatory cytokines and transcriptional alterations of the HSCs. While transplantation of aged NR-treated HSCs reproduced the enhanced lymphoid output seen in the transcriptional profiles, the changes in potential are not sustained after NR withdrawal in the aged mice, and the rebound phenotype appear to exacerbate aging phenotypes. Our results highlight the importance of the duration of NR exposure and the timing of initial exposure to derive robust, balanced lineage outputs from HSCs.

Sep 14, 2021

Brain - Alzheimer's Disease

Proceedings of the National Academy of Science

NAD+ supplementation reduces neuroinflammation and cell senescence in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease via cGAS-STING

Hou, Yujun


...Impaired neuronal bioenergetics and neuroinflammation are thought to play key roles in the progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but their interplay is not clear. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important metabolite in all human cells in which it is pivotal for multiple processes including DNA repair and mitophagy, both of which are impaired in AD neurons...Treatment of APP/PS1 mutant mice with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) for 5 mo increased brain NAD+ levels, reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and decreased activation of microglia and astrocytes. NR treatment also reduced NLRP3 inflammasome expression, DNA damage, apoptosis, and cellular senescence in the AD mouse brains. Activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING) are associated with DNA damage and senescence. cGAS–STING elevation was observed in the AD mice and normalized by NR treatment...NR treatment induced mitophagy and improved cognitive and synaptic functions in APP/PS1 mutant mice. Our findings suggest a role for NAD+ depletion-mediated activation of cGAS–STING in neuroinflammation and cellular senescence in AD.

NAD Research - Brain

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